Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are used in the variety of applications now-a-days, which includes military applications, weather, security, etc. The MANETs are known as the unstructured network, which means there is no need of any base station or centralized nodes in order to connect the client nodes. These ad-hoc networks are capable of forming the communicating cluster by inter-connecting the nodes in the particular manner. The inter-connectivity of MANET nodes requires the lower layer communication along with a robust routing algorithm. There are several routing algorithms, which involves AODV, TORA, DSR, DSDV, etc. In this thesis, we have worked on the further improvements in the TORA and AODV protocols to create the more adaptable and secure protocols. The routing protocols are responsible to route the data of source nodes to the destination nodes in the given MANET clusters. The ad-hoc networks are known to keep the neighboring tables, which are used to elect the paths between the source and destination nodes. The neighboring tables are queried by the source nodes in the 1-hop based layered architecture in all of the directions until the target node is found. Afterwards the query response is provided to the source node in order to use that path for the transmissions across the networks towards the destination node. In the MANETs, the multi-directional traffic takes place and creates the MANET cluster with non-directed graph methodology. The MANETs are vastly prone to the various attacks, as MANET nodes do not get pre-embedded security protocols due to their limited processing capability. Hence, these networks require the security schemes to be embedded within the routing protocols to prevent them from the outside attacks. In this thesis, the AODV and TORA have been evaluated under both normal and DDoS attack conditions, which is the most popular attack on MANET nodes. The performance has been measured in the form of multiple performance parameters, which includes data drop, end to end delay, network load, jitter, etc. The data drop has been observed highest in the TORA (2792 packets) in the under attack situation, whereas AODV (1600 packets) has performed far better in similar situation. The delay has been also observed higher in TORA (62 milliseconds) than AODV (25.57 milliseconds) under the attack situation. The AODV is prone to carrying the higher network loads (overhead) at 1.08 KBPS under attack in comparison to 0.033 KBPS. The jitter is also observed at higher limits in AODV (52 milliseconds) in comparison to TORA (34 milliseconds) under the attack situation. This clearly shows the robustness of the TORA protocol under all situations in comparison to the AODV as per the analysis of the performance evaluation results.
KEYWORDS: MANETs, Routing protocol, Mobility Routing, Dynamic Path Allocation.
MANETs, Routing protocol, Mobility Routing, Dynamic Path Allocation.